Soil pollution is a major problem that needs to be taken seriously. Human beings are affected by soil pollution due to the exhaust of harmful gasses released from the soil moving up, through soil thresling, or via the movement of disturbed earth because of human activities such as clearing and plowing. Soil pollution may also be caused by storm runoff, improper use of pesticides and fertilizers, and dumping of waste materials. This happens at the local as well as at the national level. The global scale also faces issues regarding the degradation of the soil due to over farming and excessive population growth.
The agricultural sector is the main source of the chemicals used for growing crops. These chemicals emit very harmful toxins into the atmosphere. These toxins find their way into the water system, which is vital for the sustenance of life forms. Soil pollution not only affects the human health, but also has a negative impact on the food chain.
Acid rain has two major effects upon humans and the environment. Firstly, it destroys the natural balance in the environment, and secondly, acid rain degrades the soil fertility of plants. Acid rain interferes with the eco system and can destroy the equilibrium between plants and animals. When this happens, the survival of the entire food chain is threatened.
The major causes of soil pollution are from agricultural and industrial activities. These cause the emission of green house gases, and the depletion of the soil fertility. Both of these processes can happen at the same time. Industrial activity is mainly responsible for the release of harmful chemicals into the atmosphere. A lot of chemicals are released into the atmosphere during the development of a factory. There are many other causes such as changing of the season, heavy downpours, lack of maintenance and other manual works etc.
One of the most common chemicals that pollute the environment and resulting in soil pollution is the insecticides and fertilizers. These chemicals are introduced into the soil before the development of the crops. The use of pesticides is necessary to control the growth of weeds and to increase the productivity of the agricultural plants. However, these chemicals have a harmful effect on the organisms living in the soil.
Other factors that are responsible for soil pollution are from the disposal of industrial waste and agricultural practices. Emptying the land for agricultural practices often results in solid wastes and residues. These wastes include plastic bags, oil and gas containers, tires, aluminum cans etc. These wastes contain toxic gases, chemicals and organic substances that pose serious threat to the environment if not disposed properly. Many pesticides and fertilizers are released into the soil after the harvest season for enhancing the production of the crops.
Another major cause for the pollution of soils is from the consumption of food which is not treated and stored adequately. Most of the food products that are consumed today are laced with chemicals and other nutrients that are not used efficiently. These chemicals are not harmless for the human beings but the chemical contaminants present in them are very harmful for the environment. Soil pollution has become a critical problem in the context of food security and environmental protection. Hence, farmers are required to follow strict guidelines and maintain the quality of soils.
According to the research conducted, these chemicals and pesticides can badly affect the productivity of the crop and can also affect the health of the people living in the soil. Therefore, it is important to manage the usage of pesticides and fertilizers effectively to save our precious soils. Soil pollution affects not only the natural ecology of the soil but also the living organisms living in it. Hence, we need to maintain the productivity and use these resources efficiently in a careful and controlled manner. Using of environmental friendly products can help us to save the soils from being polluted and can help to maintain the quality and quantity of soils.